Noisetracker/Soundtracker/Protracker Module Format
--------------------------------------------------
Credits: Lars Hamre, Norman Lin, Mark Cox, Peter Hanning,
Steinar Midtskogen, Marc Espie, and Thomas Meyer
(All numbers below are given in decimal)
3rd Revision
Module Format:
# Bytes Description
------- -----------
20 The module's title, padded with null (\0) bytes. Original
Protracker wrote letters only in uppercase.
(Data repeated for each sample 1-15 or 1-31)
22 Sample's name, padded with null bytes. If a name begins with a
'#', it is assumed not to be an instrument name, and is
probably a message.
2 Sample length in words (1 word = 2 bytes). The first word of
the sample is overwritten by the tracker, so a length of 1
still means an empty sample. See below for sample format.
1 Lowest four bits represent a signed nibble (-8..7) which is
the finetune value for the sample. Each finetune step changes
the note 1/8th of a semitone. Implemented by switching to a
different table of period-values for each finetune value.
1 Volume of sample. Legal values are 0..64. Volume is the linear
difference between sound intensities. 64 is full volume, and
the change in decibels can be calculated with 20*log10(Vol/64)
2 Start of sample repeat offset in words. Once the sample has
been played all of the way through, it will loop if the repeat
length is greater than one. It repeats by jumping to this
position in the sample and playing for the repeat length, then
jumping back to this position, and playing for the repeat
length, etc.
2 Length of sample repeat in words. Only loop if greater than 1.
(End of this sample's data.. each sample uses the same format and they
are stored sequentially)
N.B. All 2 byte lengths are stored with the Hi-byte first, as is usual
on the Amiga (big-endian format).
1 Number of song positions (ie. number of patterns played
throughout the song). Legal values are 1..128.
1 Historically set to 127, but can be safely ignored.
Noisetracker uses this byte to indicate restart position -
this has been made redundant by the 'Position Jump' effect.
128 Pattern table: patterns to play in each song position (0..127)
Each byte has a legal value of 0..63 (note the Protracker
exception below). The highest value in this table is the
highest pattern stored, no patterns above this value are
stored.
(4) The four letters "M.K." These are the initials of
Unknown/D.O.C. who changed the format so it could handle 31
samples (sorry.. they were not inserted by Mahoney & Kaktus).
Startrekker puts "FLT4" or "FLT8" here to indicate the # of
channels. If there are more than 64 patterns, Protracker will
put "M!K!" here. You might also find: "6CHN" or "8CHN" which
indicate 6 or 8 channels respectively. If no letters are here,
then this is the start of the pattern data, and only 15
samples were present.
(Data repeated for each pattern:)
1024 Pattern data for each pattern (starting at 0).
(Each pattern has same format and is stored in numerical order.
See below for pattern format)
(Data repeated for each sample:)
xxxxxx The maximum size of a sample is 65535 words. Each sample is
stored as a collection of bytes (length of a sample was given
previously in the module). Each byte is a signed value (-128
..127) which is the channel data. When a sample is played at a
pitch of C2 (see below for pitches), about 8287 bytes of
sample data are sent to the channel per second. Multiply the
rate by the twelfth root of 2 (=1.0595) for each semitone
increase in pitch eg. moving the pitch up 1 octave doubles the
rate. The data is stored in the order it is played (eg. first
byte is first byte played). The first word of the sample data
is used to hold repeat information, and will overwrite any
sample data that is there (but it is probably safer to set it
to 0).
The rate given above (8287) conveys an inaccurate picture of
the module-format - in reality it is different for different
Amigas. As the routines for playing were written to run off
certain interrupts, for different Amiga computers the rate to
send data to the channel will be different. For PAL machines
the clock rate is 7093789.2 Hz and for NTSC machines it is
7159090.5 Hz. When the clock rate is divided by twice the
period number for the pitch it will give the rate to send the
data to the channel, eg. for a PAL machine sending a note at
C2 (period 428), the rate is 7093789.2/856 ~= 8287.1369
(Each sample is stored sequentially)
Pattern Format:
Each pattern is divided into 64 divisions. By allocating different
tempos for each pattern and spacing the notes across different amounts
of divisions, different bar sizes can be accommodated.
Each division contains the data for each channel (1..4) stored after
each other. Channels 1 and 4 are on the left, and channels 2 and 3 are
on the right. In the case of more channels: channels 5 and 8 are on the
left, and channels 6 and 7 are on the right, etc. Each channel's data in
the division has an identical format which consists of 2 words (4
bytes). Divisions are numbered 0..63. Each division may be divided into
a number of ticks (see 'set speed' effect below).
Channel Data:
(the four bytes of channel data in a pattern division)
7654-3210 7654-3210 7654-3210 7654-3210
wwww xxxxxxxxxxxxxx yyyy zzzzzzzzzzzzzz
wwwwyyyy (8 bits) is the sample for this channel/division
xxxxxxxxxxxx (12 bits) is the sample's period (or effect parameter)
zzzzzzzzzzzz (12 bits) is the effect for this channel/division
If there is to be no new sample to be played at this division on this
channel, then the old sample on this channel will continue, or at least
be "remembered" for any effects. If the sample is 0, then the previous
sample on that channel is used. Only one sample may play on a channel at
a time, so playing a new sample will cancel an old one - even if there
has been no data supplied for the new sample. Though, if you are using a
"silence" sample (ie. no data, only used to turn off other samples) it
is polite to set its default volume to 0.
To determine what pitch the sample is to be played on, look up the
period in a table, such as the one below (for finetune 0). If the period
is 0, then the previous period on that channel is used. Unfortunately,
some modules do not use these exact values. It is best to do a binary-
search (unless you use the period as the offset of an array of notes..
expensive), especially if you plan to use periods outside the "standard"
range. Periods are the internal representation of the pitch, so effects
that alter pitch (eg. sliding) alter the period value (see "effects"
below).
C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B
Octave 1: 856, 808, 762, 720, 678, 640, 604, 570, 538, 508, 480, 453
Octave 2: 428, 404, 381, 360, 339, 320, 302, 285, 269, 254, 240, 226
Octave 3: 214, 202, 190, 180, 170, 160, 151, 143, 135, 127, 120, 113
Octave 0:1712,1616,1525,1440,1357,1281,1209,1141,1077,1017, 961, 907
Octave 4: 107, 101, 95, 90, 85, 80, 76, 71, 67, 64, 60, 57
Octaves 0 and 4 are NOT standard, so don't rely on every tracker being
able to play them, or even not crashing if being given them - it's just
nice that if you can code it, to allow them to be read.
Effects:
Effects are written as groups of 4 bits, eg. 1871 = 7 * 256 + 4 * 16 +
15 = [7][4][15]. The high nibble (4 bits) usually determines the effect,
but if it is [14], then the second nibble is used as well.
[0]: Arpeggio
Where [0][x][y] means "play note, note+x semitones, note+y
semitones, then return to original note". The fluctuations are
carried out evenly spaced in one pattern division. They are usually
used to simulate chords, but this doesn't work too well. They are
also used to produce heavy vibrato. A major chord is when x=4, y=7.
A minor chord is when x=3, y=7.
[1]: Slide up
Where [1][x][y] means "smoothly decrease the period of current
sample by x*16+y after each tick in the division". The
ticks/division are set with the 'set speed' effect (see below). If
the period of the note being played is z, then the final period
will be z - (x*16 + y)*(ticks - 1). As the slide rate depends on
the speed, changing the speed will change the slide. You cannot
slide beyond the note B3 (period 113).
[2]: Slide down
Where [2][x][y] means "smoothly increase the period of current
sample by x*16+y after each tick in the division". Similar to [1],
but lowers the pitch. You cannot slide beyond the note C1 (period
856).
[3]: Slide to note
Where [3][x][y] means "smoothly change the period of current sample
by x*16+y after each tick in the division, never sliding beyond
current period". The period-length in this channel's division is a
parameter to this effect, and hence is not played. Sliding to a
note is similar to effects [1] and [2], but the slide will not go
beyond the given period, and the direction is implied by that
period. If x and y are both 0, then the old slide will continue.
[4]: Vibrato
Where [4][x][y] means "oscillate the sample pitch using a
particular waveform with amplitude y/16 semitones, such that (x *
ticks)/64 cycles occur in the division". The waveform is set using
effect [14][4]. By placing vibrato effects on consecutive
divisions, the vibrato effect can be maintained. If either x or y
are 0, then the old vibrato values will be used.
[5]: Continue 'Slide to note', but also do Volume slide
Where [5][x][y] means "either slide the volume up x*(ticks - 1) or
slide the volume down y*(ticks - 1), at the same time as continuing
the last 'Slide to note'". It is illegal for both x and y to be
non-zero. You cannot slide outside the volume range 0..64. The
period-length in this channel's division is a parameter to this
effect, and hence is not played.
[6]: Continue 'Vibrato', but also do Volume slide
Where [6][x][y] means "either slide the volume up x*(ticks - 1) or
slide the volume down y*(ticks - 1), at the same time as continuing
the last 'Vibrato'". It is illegal for both x and y to be non-zero.
You cannot slide outside the volume range 0..64.
[7]: Tremolo
Where [7][x][y] means "oscillate the sample volume using a
particular waveform with amplitude y*(ticks - 1), such that (x *
ticks)/64 cycles occur in the division". The waveform is set using
effect [14][7]. Similar to [4].
[8]: -- Unused --
[9]: Set sample offset
Where [9][x][y] means "play the sample from offset x*4096 + y*256".
The offset is measured in words. If no sample is given, yet one is
still playing on this channel, it should be retriggered to the new
offset using the current volume.
[10]: Volume slide
Where [10][x][y] means "either slide the volume up x*(ticks - 1) or
slide the volume down y*(ticks - 1)". If both x and y are non-zero,
then the y value is ignored (assumed to be 0). You cannot slide
outside the volume range 0..64.
[11]: Position Jump
Where [11][x][y] means "stop the pattern after this division, and
continue the song at song-position x*16+y". This shifts the
'pattern-cursor' in the pattern table (see above). Legal values for
x*16+y are from 0 to 127.
[12]: Set volume
Where [12][x][y] means "set current sample's volume to x*16+y".
Legal volumes are 0..64.
[13]: Pattern Break
Where [13][x][y] means "stop the pattern after this division, and
continue the song at the next pattern at division x*10+y" (the 10
is not a typo). Legal divisions are from 0 to 63 (note Protracker
exception above).
[14][0]: Set filter on/off
Where [14][0][x] means "set sound filter ON if x is 0, and OFF is x
is 1". This is a hardware command for some Amigas, so if you don't
understand it, it is better not to use it.
[14][1]: Fineslide up
Where [14][1][x] means "decrement the period of the current sample
by x". The incrementing takes place at the beginning of the
division, and hence there is no actual sliding. You cannot slide
beyond the note B3 (period 113).
[14][2]: Fineslide down
Where [14][2][x] means "increment the period of the current sample
by x". Similar to [14][1] but shifts the pitch down. You cannot
slide beyond the note C1 (period 856).
[14][3]: Set glissando on/off
Where [14][3][x] means "set glissando ON if x is 1, OFF if x is 0".
Used in conjunction with [3] ('Slide to note'). If glissando is on,
then 'Slide to note' will slide in semitones, otherwise will
perform the default smooth slide.
[14][4]: Set vibrato waveform
Where [14][4][x] means "set the waveform of succeeding 'vibrato'
effects to wave #x". [4] is the 'vibrato' effect. Possible values
for x are:
0 - sine (default) /\ /\ (2 cycles shown)
4 (without retrigger) \/ \/
1 - ramp down | \ | \
5 (without retrigger) \ | \ |
2 - square ,--, ,--,
6 (without retrigger) '--' '--'
3 - random: a random choice of one of the above.
7 (without retrigger)
If the waveform is selected "without retrigger", then it will not
be retriggered from the beginning at the start of each new note.
[14][5]: Set finetune value
Where [14][5][x] means "sets the finetune value of the current
sample to the signed nibble x". x has legal values of 0..15,
corresponding to signed nibbles 0..7,-8..-1 (see start of text for
more info on finetune values).
[14][6]: Loop pattern
Where [14][6][x] means "set the start of a loop to this division if
x is 0, otherwise after this division, jump back to the start of a
loop and play it another x times before continuing". If the start
of the loop was not set, it will default to the start of the
current pattern. Hence 'loop pattern' cannot be performed across
multiple patterns. Note that loops do not support nesting, and you
may generate an infinite loop if you try to nest 'loop pattern's.
[14][7]: Set tremolo waveform
Where [14][7][x] means "set the waveform of succeeding 'tremolo'
effects to wave #x". Similar to [14][4], but alters effect [7] -
the 'tremolo' effect.
[14][8]: -- Unused --
[14][9]: Retrigger sample
Where [14][9][x] means "trigger current sample every x ticks in
this division". If x is 0, then no retriggering is done (acts as if
no effect was chosen), otherwise the retriggering begins on the
first tick and then x ticks after that, etc.
[14][10]: Fine volume slide up
Where [14][10][x] means "increment the volume of the current sample
by x". The incrementing takes place at the beginning of the
division, and hence there is no sliding. You cannot slide beyond
volume 64.
[14][11]: Fine volume slide down
Where [14][11][x] means "decrement the volume of the current sample
by x". Similar to [14][10] but lowers volume. You cannot slide
beyond volume 0.
[14][12]: Cut sample
Where [14][12][x] means "after the current sample has been played
for x ticks in this division, its volume will be set to 0". This
implies that if x is 0, then you will not hear any of the sample.
If you wish to insert "silence" in a pattern, it is better to use a
"silence"-sample (see above) due to the lack of proper support for
this effect.
[14][13]: Delay sample
Where [14][13][x] means "do not start this division's sample for
the first x ticks in this division, play the sample after this".
This implies that if x is 0, then you will hear no delay, but
actually there will be a VERY small delay. Note that this effect
only influences a sample if it was started in this division.
[14][14]: Delay pattern
Where [14][14][x] means "after this division there will be a delay
equivalent to the time taken to play x divisions after which the
pattern will be resumed". The delay only relates to the
interpreting of new divisions, and all effects and previous notes
continue during delay.
[14][15]: Invert loop
Where [14][15][x] means "if x is greater than 0, then play the
current sample's loop upside down at speed x". Each byte in the
sample's loop will have its sign changed (negated). It will only
work if the sample's loop (defined previously) is not too big. The
speed is based on an internal table.
[15]: Set speed
Where [15][x][y] means "set speed to x*16+y". Though it is nowhere
near that simple. Let z = x*16+y. Depending on what values z takes,
different units of speed are set, there being two: ticks/division
and beats/minute (though this one is only a label and not strictly
true). If z=0, then what should technically happen is that the
module stops, but in practice it is treated as if z=1, because
there is already a method for stopping the module (running out of
patterns). If z<=32, then it means "set ticks/division to z"
otherwise it means "set beats/minute to z" (convention says that
this should read "If z<32.." but there are some composers out there
that defy conventions). Default values are 6 ticks/division, and
125 beats/minute (4 divisions = 1 beat). The beats/minute tag is
only meaningful for 6 ticks/division. To get a more accurate view
of how things work, use the following formula:
24 * beats/minute
divisions/minute = -----------------
ticks/division
Hence divisions/minute range from 24.75 to 6120, eg. to get a value
of 2000 divisions/minute use 3 ticks/division and 250 beats/minute.
If multiple "set speed" effects are performed in a single division,
the ones on higher-numbered channels take precedence over the ones
on lower-numbered channels. This effect has a large number of
different implementations, but the one described here has the
widest usage.
N.B. This document should be fairly accurate now, but as the module
format is more of an observation than a standard, a couple of effects
cannot be relied upon to act exactly the same from tracker to tracker
(especially if the tracker is not for the Amiga). It is probably better
to use this document as a guide rather than as a hard-and-fast
definition of the module format. Oh.. and yes, I would normally give
bytes as hex values, but it is easier to understand a consistent
notation.
Andrew Scott (Adrenalin Software), INTERNET:ascott@tartarus.uwa.edu.au
Author of MIDIMOD (MOD to MIDI converter), PTMID (MIDI to MOD converter)