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September 2, 1993
TEDGRAV.ASC
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This EXCELLENT file shared with KeelyNet courtesy of Ray Berry.
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ON GRAVITATION
by: O. Tedenstig
Idungatan 37,
19551 M„rsta, Sweden
Date: 2/7-1993
ABSTRACT: This paper describes the process of gravitation in terms
of an inflow process of matter into material bodies, with
a rate over time corresponding to Hubble's cosmical
constant, H. The source of this flux is the thermal
radiation in space of 2.7 K, known as the background
radiation of space.
SOME HISTORICAL FACT
Newton was one of those men who understood that celestial objects
were effected by an invisible force, the same force which attracts
earth-bounded objects to the surface of the earth. With the aid of
astronomical data for planets and stars, he formulated the
gravitational law of force between massed objects. It is given by
the relation :
2
F= M1.M2.G/D
The formula asserts that the attracting force between two objects is
in direct proportion to the product of their masses and in inverse
proportion to the square of the relative distance between them,
multiplied by a cosmic constant, G, the gravity constant, determined
by Newton himself on an empirical basis.
Commonly, we experience the force of gravity as a very strong force
by comparison with other force effects known in nature. However, in
fact, the force of gravity is the weakest force of them all. If we,
for instance, compute the force developed on the same piece of
matter, firstly in respect to the gravitational force and then in
respect to the electrostatic force actuated at the same distance, we
will find a large discrepancy. With the purpose of elucidating this
fact, we may make a small calculation of the force relationship
between these two kind of forces. We take two electrons as our
reference masses. Using Coulomb's law of force we get :
Page 1
2 2
e (1.602E-19) -28 2
Fe= -------- 2 = --------------- 2 = 2.3x10 /D
4.Phi.Eo.D 4.Phi.8.85E-12.D
where we are making use of the MKS system of units. From Newton's
law of gravity, we have :
2 2
me.G (9.106E-31) . 6.67E-11 -71
Fg= ----2- = -----------2------------ = 5.53x10
D D
Hence the relation between these two forces is :
-28 -71 42
Fe/Fg = 2.3x10 /5.53x10 = 4x10 approximately
What is known, Newton himself never suggested any origin and cause
for the force of gravity. He accepted that this force was of
cosmical nature, an action-at-a-distance, activated by some unknown
physical mechanism inherent in the nature of matter. In spite of all
efforts since the days of Newton, this deep secret of nature still
remains unsolved.
A remarkable property of the G-force is that this force does not
seem to be activated by any properties of matter unless the matter
content: as for example, chemical structure, heat, mass density,
electrical or magnetic charge, state of aggregation (solid, liquid
or gaseous states), content of energy, state of motion, and so on.
Only the matter content together with the relative distance between
bodies actuates the gravity force.
But there have been speculations about other factors which may
supersede these facts. For some years ago Roland von E”tv”s'
experiment of 1889 regarding the true equivalence between "heavy"
and "inertial" mass was repeated and there was reported some small
discrepancies. However, up to now, these results have not been
finally confirmed.
There exist also speculations that the gravitational force is not
constant according to time. For instance, Dirac's theory of 1938
contains such a supposition, but no experiments have confirmed it as
yet.
In modern physics one tries to connect particle physics with the
existence of different kinds of forces existing in the physical
world, including the force of gravity. The idea is that the gravity
force is caused by intermediating particles, gravitinos, in a
similar way to that in which photons create electromagnetical
interacting forces. Not even these theories have proven successful.
And at last, Einsteins' general theory of relativity, which include
the gravitation, described only as a curvature in the space time,
hence any active force at all. Perhaps this theory describes
gravitation in a more proper and exact mathematical way than
Newton's theory, but it does not in any way explain gravity as a
physical phenomenon.
Page 2
THE NEW THEORY
Common background
One important reason why the riddle of gravity has not yet been
finally solved is perhaps that the gravity process is of a very
complex nature and where so many other things in fundamental physics
are involved in its final solution.
Our basic idea is that the force emanates from a free thermal or
electromagnetic field in space, disturbing elementary particles in
"ordinary matter" by an inflow process. We identify this field as
the thermal background radiation at 2.7 øK and the rate of inflow
equal to the Hubble constant, H, with an approximate value of 3x10E-
18 s^-1.
Also involved as a base hypothesis is that light is made up of pure
particles having mass, meaning that all of Newton's fundamental laws
work on them. That means that light hitting the surface of a
particle will create impact forces as well as even thermal energy on
them.
It will here be accentuated, that there is not the impact force from
the free thermal field which directly causes the gravity force. The
base potential which creates the enormeous gravity forces is
actuated by the vacuum itself with a pseudo material mass density of
1/Eo (see ref. 7 .....).
MATHEMATICAL DERIVATION
With the help of Stefan Boltzman's law, we begin by converting this
mechanical impact energy of the thermal field, colliding with
elementary particles in matter, to entities of mechanical energy
according to :
1) =================
4
dP/dA = T.S
=================
where S is Stefan Boltzman's constant, T is absolute temperature in
space, dA is the interaction area of the target, dP is the thermal
or mechanical effect developed on the target. If the inflowing
amount of matter from the cosmical field per unit time is denoted by
the symbol, dm , and the velocity by which this matter interacts
with an elementary particle is denoted as , v, we can compute the
mechanical energy generated by the inflowing matter as :
2) =====================
2
dp= 1/2.(dm/dt).v
=====================
We suppose here that the interaction velocity of the inflow is lower
than the limit velocity of light, c, in this case Newton's formula
for kinetic energy is valid. The common hydromechanical formula for
a material inflow over area, dA , as function of the flowing
density, qf, velocity, v , and time , t , is given by :
Page 3
3) ==================
dm = v.qf.dA.dt
==================
We insert the result of 3) into 2) and obtain :
4) ====================
3
dP/dA = 1/2.qf.v
====================
We combine 4) with 1), obtaining :
5) ====================
4
qf= 2.T .S/v
====================
Now we have an expression that provides relations between the mass
density, qf , of the thermal field, T , as a function of the
interacting velocity, v, and Stefan Boltzman's constant, S.
The next step is to find a process by which the inflow matter from
the thermal field reacts with elementary particles in "solid
matter". Mass in "normal solid matter" mainly consist of protons and
neutrons, the mass content of all electrons being negligible in this
context. It is therefore here natural to state that the interacting
velocity, v, is equal to, or nearly equal to, the spinning velocity
of a proton and that this inflow matter will create disturbances in
the spinning movement of these fundamental particles, causing a
slowing down effect on them.
Hence, each hit of a randomly inflowing electromagnetic particle
from the field ( a photon ) in the first step will cause a
disturbing effect on the form of a retardation of the spinning
movements and as a secondary effect, an absorbing of matter into the
particle as a consequence of change in balance between particle and
the surrounding vacuum space (space with density 1/Eo = 1x10e11
kg/m^3 , see ref.7 )
Further, this absorption of matter will create a corresponding
absence of matter around the body and this effect is spread in the
vicinity, disturbing another mass body situated at some distance
from it by a pushing effect.
Our hypothesis is that a mass quantity of, dmt , is absorbed by a
body of mass, m ,during time, dt. During time, T, the absorbed mass
constitutes the mass of the body by itself, hence the time where the
body has doubled its own mass.
6) ===============
dt/T = dmt/m
===============
Page 4
We designate the relation 1/T by the symbol R, representing that the
frequency by which the mass body doubles its mass content in the
gravitational field. This gives :
7) ==================
R = dma/(m.dt)
==================
Out hypothesis now is that R corresponds to Hubble's cosmical
constant, H , having the same definition, namely the dimension of
frequency 1/t or s^-1 . The retardation effect of spin movements in
matter in relation to the amount of the inflowing matter from the
thermal field and the mass content of the particle itself, gives :
8) ======================
dmt/mp = dv/v = H.dt
======================
where we denote the rest mass of a proton by mp and the retardation
of velocity derivative as, dv . Using out inflow mass formula (3),
we put the absorbed mass dmt equal to :
9) ====================
dmt= qf.Ap.v.dt
====================
Combining (9) with (8) gives :
10) ========================
H.dt = qf.Ap.v.dt/mp
========================
which can be rewritten as :
11) ========================
qf = H.mp/(Ap.v)
========================
Now we have found two expressions, (11,5) for the thermal field mass
density, denoted by , qf . We combinde these two expressions and
solve out the interesting velocity, v , out from it :
12) ===========================
4
v = SQRT(2.T .S.Ap/(H.mp)
===========================
The last step is to deduce Newton's gravitational law of force. We
Page 5
make use of our hypothesis of the absorption effect in matter. Our
base hypothesis is, that matter is absorbed at a rate, R ,
equivalent to the Hubble constant, according to (7) above.
We begin by computing the total inflow of matter to a body with a
total weight content of matter M1 and having the total interacting
area of A1. By our mass flowing formula :
13) ==================
dM1 = qx.A1.t.v
==================
which is in agreement with the inflow formula (7,8), giving :
14) =======================
M1.H.t = qx.A1.t.v
=======================
From this result we can calculate the inflow density very near the
limiting area of M1, giving :
15) ==================
qx = M1.H/(A1.v)
==================
However, this mass density will decline as a function of distance.
The inflowing mass will be spread over an inflowing area at distance
D , equal to Ad = 4.Phi.D^2 , giving the field mass density at
distance, D :
16) ============================
qD = qx.A1/Ad = M1.H/(v.Ad)
============================
where Ad = 4.Phi.D^2 .
Another mass body M2 situated at the point, D , because of the
absorbed mass , M1, will be effected by a negative inflow since M1
steals mass from M2. We compute this negative inflow to :
17) =======================================
dM2 = qD.A2.t.v ; A2 = (M2/mp).Ap
=======================================
where A2 is the total interacting area of M2. We multiply both sides
by, v , giving :
Page 6
18) ==========================
2
dM2.v = qD.A2.t.v = F.t
==========================
Using the results of (16,17) gives :
2 2 2
F = qD.A2.v = M1.H/(v.Ad).A2.v = M1.H/(v.Ad).(M2/mp)).Ap.v =
2
(M1.M2/D ).(H.Ap.v/(4.Phi.mp)) or
19) ===================================
2
F = (M1.M2/D ). (H.Ap.v/(4.Phi.mp)
===================================
Comparing this result with Newton's gravitation law of force, we can
identify the expression within the parentheses as Newton's gravity
constant, G . Hence :
20) =========================
G = (H.Ap.v/(4.Phi.mp))
=========================
The proton, being of torus form, having a radius of Rp gives the
proton interacting area equal to Ap = 2.Phi.Rp.2.Ph.Rp, giving :
21) ==========================
2 2
Ap = 4.Phi .Rp
==========================
Our hypothesis is, that electrons and protons have the SAME INHERENT
MASS DENSITY, giving the proton radius :
21) ==========================
1/3
Rp = (Mp/me) .re
==========================
We make a summary of important formulae that have been obtained,
from which the gravity constant G , can be calculated :
22) =============================
1/3
Rp = re.(Mp/me)
2 2
Ap = 4.Phi .Rp
Page 7
2 1/2
v = T.(2.S.Ap/(H.mp))
G = H.Ap.v/(4.Phi.mp)
=================================
where :
-8
S= 5.6703x10 Stefan Boltzman's constant
o
T= 2.7 K Thermal background radiation
temperature
-15
re= 2.8179380(70)x10 m Classic electron radius
-31
me= 9.109534/47)x10 kg Electron rest mass
8
c= 2.99792458(1.2)x10 m/s Limit velocity of matter
mp= 1836.15152(70) x me Proton rest mass
-11
G= 6.6720(41)x10 Newton's gravity constant
-18
H= 3 x 10 Hubble constant (approximative)
On inserting given parameters, the following table is obtained :
INSERTED VALUES CALCULATED VALUE OF G -11
TO BE COMPARED WITH 6.6720x10
o -18 -1 -1 2 -2
T Kelvin Hx10 s ! G kg m s in the MKS(A) unit system
-----------------------!------------------------------------------
* ! -11
2.7 3.0 ! 5.0x10
* ! -11
2.7 5.26 ! 6.67x10
!
* The exact value of the Hubble constant is not known. New
indications point in the direction that H is larger than
3E-18, see ref. 5) and 6).
THE COSMICAL DOPPLER RED SHIFT FROM DISTANT CELESTIAL OBJECTS.
The idea that the gravity process is founded on an inflowing process
in ordinary matter is here based on an interacting process with
mainly elementary particles of protons and neutrons. It is not
clear that the process can be applied to all sorts of matter, for
instance light particles such as photons, but if we suppose that the
gravity process is the same for all kinds of matter, some old
classical problems of cosmology can be solved in an attractive way.
Such old problems are: the red shift from distant celestial objects,
Olber's paradox ;
the creation of new matter in a steady state
universe.
Page 8
The cosmological red shift from very distant celestial objects can
then be interpreted as s slowing down effect of light travelling
long distances (using the model of light as being a wave of matter,
not a wave in a light-bearing aether).
The wave-length of the travelling wave is constant but the frequency
varies in time with the slowing down effect on the light velocity ;
hence :
23) =======================
f1 = w/c ; f2 = w/c'
=======================
where c' = c-dc. This gives a small shift in frequency of light to
24) ==============================
df = f1 - f2 = fo.(1 - c/c');
==============================
The original mass of the outflowing photon from the source has the
mass , m , and during the flight time , t , this mass has increased
by an entity , dm. The mass impulse is supposed to be constant with
time, giving :
25) ===========================================
m.c = (m+dm).c' ; c'/c = m/(m+dm) = 1+dm/m
===========================================
Using our definition of Hubble's constant, H=R, as in (7), this
gives :
26) =============================
c'/c = dm/m = (dm/m)/t = 1+H.t
==============================
and according this with result of (24) :
27) ===========================
df = - f0.H.t
===========================
which shows a frequency Doppler shift of long travelling light from
distant celestial objects as resulting from a slowing down effect on
light.
In the Hubble formula for cosmical red shift as a function of
distance (time, t, is transformed to distance by d = c.t), a shift
in frequency of light, as here calcualted, is replaced with an
equivalent shift in wavelength. But that makes no difference in
Page 9
measurements made by spectrometers.
Stretching this idea we can see the process by which new matter in
the universe is continuously created by an inflow process from
vacuum matter. During each period of about 10-15 billions of years,
the mass in a body (the earth for example) has doubled its content;
during the following period the original mass would have increased
by four times its initial value ( a logarithmic mathematical
function ).
By the same process, long travelling light outburts from distant
stars and galaxies will decline in time, losing their inherent
energy. What remains is only a common electromagnetic noise which we
now observe as the common background thermal radiation of 2.7 øK.
Hence, this is the common link of distant interaction between
celestial objects, resulting in the process of gravitation as here
briefly described.
REFERENCES :
(1) A New Way to Physics, ISBN 91 97077534 1990, by O. Tedenstig
Idungatan 37, 19551 M„rsta, Sweden
(2) Broberg, Henrik : Energy, Matter and Gravitation in an
Unlimited, Renewable Universe, ESA Journal, V.6, pp.207-32,
1982
(3) Rendle, A.B. ;: Gravitation and the Flowing Medium, Modal
Research, Dorling Road, Gt. Bookham, Surrey, England
(4) Miller, Gary C. : Gravitation, APGR's Journal, 501 Copeland,
P.O. Box 223, Pocahentas, AR 72445, USA
(5) New Scientist 4 January 1992, Astronomers double the age of
Universe, John Gribbin
(6) New Scientist 18 July 1992, Hawk-eyed Hubble double age of
Universe, Ken Crosswell, Berkley.
(7) A new model of interaction between matter and vacuum,
Ove Tedenstig, Galilean Electrodynamics xxx/yyy 1993.
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