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| File Name : COMPULS1.ASC | Online Date : 09/19/94 |
| Contributed by : Perry Mick | Dir Category : GRAVITY |
| From : KeelyNet BBS | DataLine : (214) 324-3501 |
| KeelyNet * PO BOX 870716 * Mesquite, Texas * USA * 75187 |
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The following is taken from the summary at the end of a book called:
'Radiational Theory of Gravitation and Structure of Matter, Gravitation as an
Inexhaustible Source of Energy' by Jaromir Hrbek of the Czechoslovak Academy
of Sciences.
This book was published in 1978, and may be hard to locate in the U.S. because
of its communist origins. I checked it out of the University of Oregon Science
Library.
The author makes a very good case against Newton-Einstein, but his replacement
theory is a little harder to accept. However, here it is for everybody to
evaluate for themselves.
Perry J. Mick
Raamco Avionics, Inc.
P.O. Box 41271
Eugene, Oregon 97404
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SUMMARY (P. 271)
The treatise is divided into seven chapters.
I. PREFACE
The reader is informed about the reasons making the author publish his new
theory more than 40 years after its foundation had been laid. Being a
physician -- clinical neurologist and neurophysiologist -- he is but an amateur
in physics and astronomy. A detailed discussion with experts in 1949 resulted
in their refusal to accept the new conception. It should however be stressed
that despite the great effort of many investigators the true explanation of the
nature of gravitation has not been proposed for what now has been 5 centuries
since Copernicus and 3 centuries since Newton. Let, therefore, a layman offer
his contribution to the solution of this problem. He proposes (see Chapter VI)
a number of experimental measurements to decide whether his new conception is
right or wrong. Practical application of the gravitational energy, which
according to this theory is possible, will play the role of the experimentum
crucis.
II. REVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF COSMOLOGY AND STUDY OF THE NATURE OF GRAVITATION
History shows that the questions of gravitational interaction between material
bodies could not be studied at all before the victory of the heliocentric
picture of our solar system made by Aristarchos and Copernicus.
Starting from the synthesis of Galilei's dynamics of the motion of terrestrial
bodies and Kepler's kinematics of the motion of celestial bodies Isaac Newton
had laid the foundations of classical mechanics and mathematically formulated
his law of gravitation perfectly verified in practice. Newton, however, tried
to find the causam gravitatis in vain. Contrary to his own opinions, his
collaborators introduced and spread the conception in the form traditionally
held till today: Gravitation is regarded as a general immanent property of
all matter (qualitas occulta). It is the ability of bodies to attract
themselves (vis attractiva), even at distance and in empty space (actio in
distans).
The past almost 3 centuries have seen scores of attempts to explain gravitation
by direct mechanical effect of the impacts of ether atoms or ether pressure,
hydrodynamic, electrodynamic, thermodynamic, and other theories. All of them
have failed after the proof that no presupposed ether exists.
Within his general theory of relativity, Albert Einstein submitted mathematical
description of the gravitational field and formulated a new law of gravitation
containing Newton's law as a special case. Einstein did not deal with the
nature of gravitation at all. Being an advocate of Mach's empirio-criticism
and positivism he considered this problem as meaningless, inaccessible to
scientific exploration. Further gravitational theories have also presented
only different mathematical description of the gravitational effect.
The true explanation of gravitation, i.e. interpretation of the material nature
and causal conditioning of gravitational interaction between bodies has not
been made yet.
III. RADIATIONAL THEORY OF GRAVITATION
The radiational theory of gravitation is based on the following premises:
(1) There does not exist any empty space among material bodies and particles.
There is no Newtonian absolute space (sensorium Dei), no Kantian space as
a mere sensing form of intellect (sensorium Homini), no immaterial only
force or effect field. Space (and space-time) is the form of the existence
of matter. All space surrounding material macrosystems and minisystems is
filled with material cosmic radiation. Radiation is the cosmogonically
oldest and cosmologically most extensive state of matter (beside material
macrosystems of the gaseous, liquid, and solid states). Radiation is
independent (free, unbound) motion of individual smallest systems
(minisystems) of matter. Material radiation covers a broad scale of
radiational minisystems -- starting from zero units of the primitive
substance through minisystems of the 1st, 2nd, etc. order up to
infraphotons of the (n-2) order, infraelectrons and infranucleons of the
(n-1) order, and the so-called elementary particles of the (n) order,
particularly electrons and nucleons. There is no immaterial, only wave
radiation. The wave properties of radiational material minisystems are
manifestations of the inner motion of the constituents of the minisystems,
i.e. of elements of a lower order bound in the studied minisystems. The
structure of the minisystems can be of the following double type: (a) pair
of oscillating elements, (b) "planetary" patterns with central nucleolus
and orbiting elements.
(2) The principal generators of radiation are all forms and evolutional stages
of the whole cosmic mass -- metagalaxies, intergalactic provinces, galaxies
and stars. It is cosmic radiation in the widest sense of the word (not the
so-called cosmic or height corpuscular radiation!) filling the whole space
of the Universe. The stream of this cosmic radiation flowing in from all
directions is in the area of our planetary system mingling with radiation
emitted by the Sun. But in principle, all material systems can be the
source of radiation, though to a varying extent. This applies to planets,
Earth and atoms of terrestrial bodies as well.
(3) Mutual interaction between material radiation and condensed material
systems is effectuated in four main ways: (a) emission of radiation, (b)
incidence and reflection of radiation, (c) penetration of radiation
(including refraction, diffraction, interference and polarization), and (d)
absorption of radiation.
(4) Minisystems of material radiation striking upon the body and reflected or
absorbed show, among other effects, the mechanical effect, i.e.
transferring part of their impulse to the body. If the body is acted upon
by an asymmetric current of cosmic radiation (predominant from a certain
direction) the total motion effect can be considerable since the number of
radiational minisystems is immense and their velocities tremendous, though
the mass of an individual minisystem may be negligibly small.
(5) A body placed in the medium of cosmic radiation can bring about changes in
the radiational field: (a) reflecting part of the afferent arrival of
cosmic radiation, (b) absorbing part of the cosmic radiation and causing
reduction of the radiation stream, producing permanent partial radiational
shade (shielding), (c) emitting efferent stream of its own radiation (of
various intensity). All the mass of the body participates in these events,
not only the surface layers (as it is the case with optic phenomena).
Explanation of the nature of gravitation. New law of gravitation.
Gravitational interaction between material macrosystems is due to a special
mutual intervention of at least two bodies in their relations to the
radiational medium. These relations are illustrated by the analysis of four
imagined situations:
(1) All the existing matter of the Universe is condensed in a single body, all
the remaining space being empty. Only the body's own emission of
radiation, or its gradual condensation can become manifested in this case.
The gravitational property of a solitary material system does not and
cannot be manifested in any way.
(2) Under the same conditions there are two bodies M1 and M2 coexisting at the
distance r between them. Distant interaction between both bodies is
mediated by the emission of their own material radiation and manifested by
mutual repelling, repulsion of both bodies.
Repulsion between bodies M1 and M2 is brought about by the mechanical effect
of M1's own radiation striking upon M2 (and vice versa -- provided both bodies
emit their own radiation).
The intensity of the total emission of radiational minisystems of various kinds
and types by M1 is proportional to its mass and it diminishes with the square
of the distance r. The mechanical repulsive effect is proportional to the mass
of the hit M2. Using e1 to designate the resulting vector of the repulsive
effect of M1's radiation upon M2, e2 to denote the vector of the repulsive
effect of M2's emission upon M1, mutual repulsion R can be expressed in the
following way.
R = -(M1*M2/r^2)*(e1+e2)
No attraction of masses occurs and can occur in this situation.
Gravitation is no general immanent property of matter.
(3) A solitary spherical body is situated in the centre of an immense hollow
sphere with all the other bodies of the Universe evenly distributed making
up its wall.
The solitary mass remains in the state of rest. The repulsive effects of
cosmic radiation striking on it equally from all directions are neutralized.
The radiation emitted by the body can contribute to the repulsion (expansion)
of the enveloping mass.
There is no gravitational attraction of masses.
(4) Under the conditions of (3) there are two material bodies M1 and M2
coexisting in the central part of the Universe and placed at their mutual
distance r. This schematic situation brings us very close to reality. A
qualitative turn is found here in the interaction between bodies and
material cosmic radiation.
If both bodies emit their own radiation, the result is mutual repulsion in the
sense of (2).
But the effect of cosmic radiation is radically changing with coexistence of
at least two bodies. Cosmic radiation now does not strike either of the two
bodies in an even and symmetrical fashion from all directions and its
mechanical effect is not neutralized -- as it was the case with a solitary
body. The arrival of cosmic radiation is now asymmetrical because part of the
radiation travelling to the mass of M1 is intercepted by M2 and vice versa.
Both bodies are in part mutually shielding themselves from the impact of cosmic
radiation. The consequence of this is a partial radiational shade or
shielding. Cosmic radiation coming to the bodies from the averted directions
becomes dominant. It acts upon both bodies with its asymmetrical mechanical
effect, forcing them together or compelling them along their connecting line
in what is a compulsive action. This is the true mechanism of the conjectural
gravitational attraction between masses.
Mutual compulsion between bodies M1 and M2 in the field of cosmic radiation c
is caused by mutual radiational shading of both bodies and the origin of the
prevalence of the mechanical effect exerted by the cosmic radiation striking
upon bodies from averted directions.
Let us use c1 to designate the resulting vector of the prevalent effect of
cosmic radiation upon M1 due to radiational shading by M2, c2 to denote the
compulsion vector of M2 due to the shading by M1. The radiational shading is
proportional to the shielding mass, its intensity diminishing with the square
of the distance r. the compulsive effect of cosmic radiation is proportional
to the mass of the compelled body and to the screening intensity of the other
body.
Mutual compulsion C between bodies M1 and M2 due to the prevalent mechanical
effect of the cosmic radiation c1 and c2 can in its simplest form be expressed
in the following way:
C = (M1*M2/r^2)*(c1+c2)
Real gravitational interaction between material bodies arises only in case of
coexistence of at least two bodies in the medium of cosmic radiation. Active
factor of this mutual compulsion is the asymmetrical mechanical effect of
cosmic radiation due to the mutual radiational (gravitational) shade
(shielding) of both bodies. Gravitational interaction always includes (though
to a varying extent) emission of the body's own radiation which is the active
agent of mutual repulsion between bodies. According to what is the proportion
between compulsion and repulsion the resulting total effect of gravitational
interaction may be very different.
In terms of the radiational theory our new law of gravitation can be formulated
in its simplest general form in the following way:
Gravitational interaction G between bodies M1 and M2 in the medium of cosmic
radiation is the result of mutual compulsion between both bodies through the
effect of the c1 and c2 vectors of cosmic radiation arising from the mutual
radiational shading of the bodies, and of mutual repulsion R between the bodies
through the effect of the e1 and e2 vectors of their own radiation emission
striking upon the other body.
G = (M1*M2/r^2)*[(c1+c2)-(e1+e2)]
If the radiation emitted by the body itself is little or negligible, the result
is complete compulsion of bodies (collision) at uniformly accelerated motion.
This is the case of the Earth's gravitational field, where an object is exposed
to one-sided prevalence of cosmic radiation in the huge radiational
(gravitational) shade thrown by the Earth.
If, however, at least one of the bodies (e.g. the Sun) has high production of
its own radiation, the other body with low emission (e.g. the Earth) is kept
at a great distance at which the repulsive effect can be neutralized with the
compulsive gravitational action.
The radiational theory of gravitation applies the role of the mutual
radiational (gravitational) shielding between bodies stressed by LeSage (and
perhaps even earlier by N. Fatio and F. A. Redecker) from new points of view.
The opinions expressed by G. W. F. Hegel and F. Engels are confirmed here in
concrete form, namely that the so-called attraction between bodies can be due
only to repulsion. In our interpretation, it is the active mechanical effect
of incident cosmic radiation, or radiation emitted by the body itself.
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This is the first file of three. To be continued...
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roportion between compulsion and repulsion the r
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