(word processor parameters LM=8, RM=75, TM=2, BM=2)
Taken from KeelyNet BBS (214) 324-3501
Sponsored by Vangard Sciences
PO BOX 1031
Mesquite, TX 75150
There are ABSOLUTELY NO RESTRICTIONS
on duplicating, publishing or distributing the
files on KeelyNet!
August 25, 1991
CFG1.ASC
--------------------------------------------------------------------
This file shared with KeelyNet courtesy of Woody Moffitt.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Charge Fluctuations as a Possible
Origin of Biefeld-Brown Effects
by Darrell Moffitt
The Biefeld-Brown effect, if it is not ionic, presents the
phenomenon of a highly charged electrical condenser moving in the
direction of its positive pole when suspended in a gravitational
field.
A possible explanation for this behavior might be found by
invoking statistical mechanics. A fundamental theorem of this
discipline states that the maximum fluctuations of a given system
are directly proportional to the square root of the particle number.
Given this result, it is illuminating to consider the role played by
charge fluctuations in a Biefeld-Brown device. A simple calculation
reveals a curious fact.
One gram of matter contains
6.0223*10^23 (Avogadro's number)
proton-electron combinations. Thus, a maximum fluctuation in this
system corresponds to a particle number of approximately
7.7604*10^11 "neutral" charge pairs.
(The pairing is not completely neutral, as virtual fluctuations and
polarization effects are always present.)
If one takes a value of
2.3071*10^-19 (gm*cm^3/t^2) for the proton-electron interaction,
and multiplies it by the fluctuation particle number, the resulting
quantity,
1.7037*10^-7(gm*cm^3/t^2),
represents the (maximal) fluctuation charge product in a gram of
matter. (All units are in the cgs system.)
Page 1
Recent measurements of Newton's constant yield a figure of roughly
6.6732*10^-8(cm^3/gm*t^2).
Therefore, the magnitude of gravitational interaction between two
grams of matter is just slightly less than that produced by charge
fluctuations within the sample. Let's look at this more closely.
Statistical systems are usually described in terms of distribution
functions. One of these, the Gaussian distribution,
(exp(-x ^2)/2pi)^(1/2),
often appears in studies of statistical systems, and is used to
generate the first-order wave functions of quantum mechanics.
Simple fluctuation waves then, are specified by equations of the
form
(N*exp(-x^2)/2pi)^(1/2).
This function, however, describes a total distribution, not the
steady-state, equilibrium behavior of the system.
That is better described by limit-point equations, i.e., iterative
equations whose output is fed back until it reaches a singular
value.
Iterative equations possess many remarkable properties, one being
that of self-similar (fractal solution) structure. They also
demonstrate limit-point, oscillatory, or chaotic behaviors,
depending upon the nature of the function and its parameters.
The function of interest here is the Gaussian distribution. Its
equilibrium value is given by the equation
(exp(-x^2)/(2pi))^(1/2))-x=0, where x=.3722.
Multiplying "x" by the figure given above for total fluctuations
(per gram) yields a value of roughly
6.6639*10^-8(gm*cm^3/t^2)(1/gm)^2
which agrees with Newton's constant to within 99.86%.
This coincidence, if that is what it is, suggests a probable
relation between Biefeld-Brown effects and gravitation, but fails to
relate more than a quantitative agreement of amplitudes.
Extending the analysis requires treatment of such topics as charge
screening, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, and plasma physics,
notably the physics of wave propagation in cold plasmas.
Extensive studies by this author and others indicate that true
gravitation is an electromagnetic phenomenon described most
accurately by equations related to the Casimir potentials of quantum
mechanics, and predicated upon the existence of a vacuum ground
state (zero point energy).
This approach has to date yielded numerous relations whose
Page 2
predictions agree with measured gravitation to an accuracy on par
with that of quantum electrodynamics, based upon a treatment of
scalar mass potentials in the context of stochastic electrodynamics
(unpublished).
Therefore, it is the author's belief that Biefeld-Brown effects
originate in mass-bound charge fluctuations of bulk matter, whereas
vacuum, or "true" gravitation must be described theoretically at a
single-particle level, a process qualitatively distinct from that
suggested by the previous study.
If this is true,it should be possible to derive a theory based on
interactions of mass-bound charge fluctuations with virtual states
of the quantum vacuum.
A useful starting point for such studies is Fradkin and Shabad's
1974 paper "Spontaneous Breaking of Translational Invariance in
Quantum Electrodynamics".
There, Fradkin and Shabad propose a theory of vacuum structure which
is noteworthy for its description of "spontaneous" charged particle
currents propagating at lightspeed, i.e., in massless form.
Fradkin and Shabad also derive spacelike (superluminal,
longitudinal) wave vectors which couple to produce the tranverse,
luminal photons normally observed.
In conclusion, the physics of mass-bound charge fluctuations is (to
this author's knowledge) an unexplored but highly useful field of
inquiry. In time it may yield a deeper comprehension of both
Biefeld-Brown effects and the virtual phenomenon of quantum
vacuum physics.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Author's Note: Some preceeding statements were made on the basis
of unpublished proprietary work, without elaboration,
in the hope of encouraging new lines of inquiry and
discourse related to alternative research. Competent
readers will at once recognize its unfinished nature.
Note 2 : The paper referred to above, "Spontaneous Breaking
of Translational Invariance in Quantum
Electrodynamics", may be found in "Proceedings of
P.N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, Vol.57", p.223-
243, published by Consultants Bureau in conjunction
with Plenum Publishing.
A good introduction to Casimir potentials will be
found in the Nov 1986 edition of "Physics
Today",p.37-45, titled "Retarded, or Casimir, long-
range potentials", by Larry Spruch.
This includes a brief description of the "Casimir
force", (pi*hc/480), and a calculation of Van de
Waals forces in polarizable systems.
Page 3
Readers may also wish to consult bibliographies contained in the
KeelyNet files "ZPE1" and "ZPE2", specifically the papers by H.E.
Puthoff and A.E.Sakharov.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
If you have comments or other information relating to such topics
as this paper covers, please upload to KeelyNet or send to the
Vangard Sciences address as listed on the first page.
Thank you for your consideration, interest and support.
Jerry W. Decker.........Ron Barker...........Chuck Henderson
Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet
--------------------------------------------------------------------
If we can be of service, you may contact
Jerry at (214) 324-8741 or Ron at (214) 242-9346
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 4