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The Void Theory
as derived by
Steven L. Comee
(courteously shared by Dan A. Davidsion)
If you have questions or comments regarding this paper,
please direct them to
Vangard at the above address or directly to
Steven Comee
1106 Waverly Heights Drive
Thousand Oaks, CA 91360
....thank you....Sysop

What is the cause of matter?
(Why does it exist?)
What is matter, physically?
What is the cause of gravity?
What is the cause of the electric charge?
Why are the electrons, protons, and neutrons
the only predominate particles?
Why are neutrons necessary to hold an atom's nucleus together?
Why do neutron stars form but not proton stars?
Why is the speed of light the value it is?
Why do Quarks have charges of 1/3, 2/3 and 1?
Why do electrons tunnel?
Why does superconductivity occur?
Why do a very few people have "supernatural" experiences?
Why does a "big bang" occur?
How can one travel to the stars and back in only
a few hours elapsed time (at the point of origin)?
How can you make antimatter?
These are the questions that this theory answers directly. The key
question to answer is what is Matter?

Page 1
To start, let's go back to the basics. One condition of Einstein's
Theory of Relativity was that space and time were isotropic and
homogeneous.
If matter is physically something, then one would need at least one
more dimension to account for it. Maybe not. Consider the
opposite; maybe matter ISN'T SOMETHING.
By considering the law of thermodynamics of increasing entropy
(disorder), quantum mechanics, and any form of Murphy's Law all
blended together, I propose the following :
HYPOTHESIS
The Universe is not perfect because it is elastic to a limit.
This elasticity means that a void (or missing dimension) may
occur anywhere at any time.
The size of a void is quantized. A uniform random probability
distribution function governs the creation and destruction of the
voids throughout the universe.
The density of this function is high enough such that voids can
coalesce (since there are larger particles than voids in the
universe.)
DISCUSSION:
A void causes a distortion to space/time because of the
elasticity of space and time. The distortion is thus infinite.
A void is an imperfection in the homogeÿeous and isotrpic
assumption. This distortion to space and time due to the existence
of a void is what we call gravity and the void is called a particle
of matter.
Gravity is always an attractive force because space/time tries to
minimize the distortion (that is, to be stretched as little as
possible). There is no such thing as antigravity (due to the
definition of gravity).
If there is a limit to how elastic space/time is, then there is a
limit to how fast a void can travel through space/time as well as a
limit to how big a void may get. This is why the speed of light is
the value it is and why a big bang occurs; they are a direct measure
of how elastic space/time is. They are the limits to which space
and time may be stretched.
Time flow (time velocity or dt) is not associated with space (it
is orthogonal) but with each void because the void either does or
does not exist at an absolute location at an absolute time.
If the time flow is positive, it is called matter.
If the time flow is negative, it is called antimatter.
If the time flow is zero, it is called energy.
Page 2
This then offers an explanation as to why matter and antimatter
annihilate each other just by touching, producing energy; their time
flows cancel each other, and particles with zero time flows are
energy.
The particles still exist, which is why conservation of momentum
is maintained. It also explains the particle nature of energy
(light).
It is important to note that the elastic limit applies to the sum
of the speed through space AND TIME because this gives us two
important boundary conditions.
If the absolute spatial speed is 0, then the absolute time flow
is at a maximum; and if the absolute spatial speed is the speed of
light, then the absolute time flow is zero.
Thus in order to move about in space, you must give up some of
your time flow. To travel anywhere in the universe "instantly",
your absolute time flow must be zero.
If you go back to the four basic equations that make up the
Theory of Relativity and add time flow, you get a set of four linear
differential equations. When using a constant velocity (Special
Relativity) or constant acceleration (General Relativity) between
two frames of reference, the derivatives for velocity or
acceleration must be used (because dt varies).
The boundary conditions needed to solve the differential
equations is the elastic limit of space/time.
Imagine all three spatial velocity vectors represented by one.

Vangard comments...
(This is what John W. Keely discovered in the late 1800's,
he found that each of the 3 vectors
formed varying percentages of the total flow of 100% and
that these percentages could be CONTROLLED
to generate a variety of effects)

This is where the Theory of Relativity stops and uses the speed
of light. ut the universe has four vectors. Now add a time flow
vector to the spatial vector.
The resultant universe velocity vector has an absolute maximum
value and is the new boundary condition (which is determined by the
elasticity of space/time).
What events lead up to a "big bang"? Just as a rock is
pulverized when subjected to enough pressure, there should be a
point at which a void has stretched the universe to its elastic
limit.
When the limit is reached, the void cannot be moving spatially
and thus its time flow is at the maximum. When the void tries to
exceed the spatial/time limit, that point in the universe snaps back
to its original shape.
Page 3
This requires that the void disappear instantly. It can do this
by changing all of its time flow to spatial velocity.
Thus its maximum time flow jumps to zero (turns to energy), and
it must pulverize ¼to obey the conservation of momentum. A "big
bang" is just a local event and will eventually disperse the matter
back to the norm. Thus the question of an open/closed universe has
no meaning. It is neither. The universe is a concept.
Tunnelling is possible when a small void (say an electron) is
perfectly aligned (travelling perpendicularly) with the missing
dimension of a larger void. It can then pass right through.
Resistance can be viewed as the result of the attractive forces
(due to time flow) between an electron and the quarks in the
nucleus.
If a geometric configuration of the neutrons and protons in a
material could be arranged (as in a crystal) so as to shield the
positive time flowing voids from external electrons, then those
electrons should see no resistance. Temperature and pressure affect
crystal structure, so they should also affect resistance.
If an event in the future generates voids which travel backwards
in time faster than the event travels forward in time, then it
should be possible to foretell that particular event.
Similarly, if an event in the past generates voids which travel
forward in time faster than the event travels forward in time, then
it should be possible to relive the event.
Mathematically, a void is the absence of at least one dimension.
Thus there are 15 unique types of voids or elementary particles. and
one quasiparticle. This number is determined by the number of
coordinates used. Visually, this can be shown in a binary table,
where 1 represents the presence of that dimension :
x y z t
1 0 0 0 0
2 0 0 0 1
3 0 0 1 0
4 0 0 1 1
5 0 1 0 0
6 0 1 0 1
7 0 1 1 0
8 0 1 1 1
9 1 0 0 0
10 1 0 0 1
11 1 0 1 0
12 1 1 0 0
13 1 1 0 1
14 1 1 1 0
15 1 1 1 1
Level 15 is the "normal" or (empty) universe.
Page 4
Now lets' rearrange these entries according to the number of
dimensions missing and whether time is present:
dimensions anti
x y z t missing charge particle comment
1 1 1 1 0 0 yes neutrino (when t is
out of phase) (no
mass)
0 1 1 1 1 1/3 yes quark (d  green)
1 0 1 1 1 1/3 yes quark (d  blue)
1 1 0 1 1 1/3 yes quark (d  red)
1 1 1 0 1 0 no photon (no mass)

0 0 1 1 2 2/3 yes quark (u  red)
0 1 0 1 2 2/3 yes quark (u  blue)
1 0 0 1 2 2/3 yes quark (u  green)
0 1 1 0 2 1/3 no
1 0 1 0 2 1/3 no
1 1 0 0 2 1/3 no

0 0 0 1 3 1 yes electron
0 0 1 0 3 2/3 no
0 1 0 0 3 2/3 no
1 0 0 0 3 2/3 no

0 0 0 0 4 1 no

Note the quark symmetry : u d
red 001 110
blue 010 101
green 100 011

"t" must be present for a particle to have an antimatter
counterpart since antimatter is nothing more than the particle
travelling backwards in time.
What is more intriguing are the particles which are missing the
time dimension. This means they only exist for an instant (t=n) and
hence cannot be detected directly like an electron. These are the
virtual or "transfer" particles in most unified theories.
Charge is a measure of the number of spatial dimensions missing.
The positive and negative attribute normally associated with charge
really belongs to the time dimension.
A negative charge (say an electron) is really an antimatter
particle.
Page 5
A proton is composed of three quarks, one of which is antimatter,
and two of the three quarks in a neutron are antimatter. By placing
the "sign" of a charge with the time dimension, one can understand
where all the antimatter went when cosmologists ask symmetry
questions. It is all around us.
Matter/antimatter annihilation occurs only when all of the voids
in each particle match dimensionally, which is why the quarks in
protons and neutrons coexist; they are not identical.
The table could be further subdivided for each entry with more
than one dimension missing in which at least one dimension was
traveling forward in time and the remaining dimensions traveling
backwards in time.
Two voids (charges) travelling in the same time direction repel
each other because they are trying to occupy the same time and
space.
"Opposite charges" attract because their opposite time flows pull
the voids together and allow the voids to occupy the same space (and
hence annihilation).
This force between stationary voids which have a time dimension
is called the electrostatic force. When the voids are moving, it is
called the electromagnetic force.
From the above table, one can see why there are only six quarks.
Like a crystal, a larger particle can be built up from smaller
particles.
A composite particle is stable when all three spatial dimensions
are in symmetry (i.e. an integer charge number). A particle missing
one dimension will attract another particle missing the same
dimension with the opposite time flow and missing at least one of
the remaining dimensions, and repel those missing the same dimension
with the same time flow. The force that governs the making of
composite particles is called the strong force.
How the strong force behaves (three ways) depends upon the
structure of the particle.
Symmetry can consist of two voids in one spatial dimension
travelling in opposite time directions. It can also be one spatial
dimension travelling opposite time directions. Or it can just be a
void in each spatial dimension.
The three colors associated with each quark is nothing more than
the three ways that the voids within a quark may be oriented. The
dquarks have one void and the uquarks have two voids.
Making a composite particle is somewhat like balancing a chemical
equation. And by looking at the void symmetry, one can get a
feeling for a particle's behavior.
Page 6
For example; a neutron has its voids travelling in opposite time
directions (zero net time flow) and a proton has three voids all
travelling forward in time (positive net time flow):
Neutron
( 0 0 1 +) > ( 0 0 1 +) 
( 0 1 1 ) > ( 0 1 1 ) 
( 1 0 1 ) > ( 0 1 0 +) 
( 0 0 0 ) electron
( 1 1 1 ) antineutrino
Geometric structure:
+  +  +

When particles break up or combine, there may be a transfer of
voids between particles. At the instant of transfer, at least one
of the eight virtual particles is involved.
The force that transfers a void between particles is called the
weak force. Since this transfer of voids takes place within a
composite particle, the weak force is only effective for a short
time and hence for only a short distance.
The electrostatic, electromagnetic, strong, and weak force are
all the result of the force between voids due to their time flow
direction, whereas gravity is the result of the force between voids
due to their physical existence.
Thus one could look at gravity as being orthogonal to the other
forces and hence cannot be unified with them, other than they are
all the result of a void.
Gravity results in a larger single void to reduce the distortion
to space/time whereas the other forces all result in a combination
of individual voids in trying to eliminate the space/time
distortion. That is why gravity is weaker than the other forces
(reduce verse eliminate).
EXPLANATION (PROOF) OF WHY THE UNIVERSE IS COMPOSED OF ELECTRONS,
PROTONS, AND NEUTRONS:
A stable (long lived) particle is one in which all three spatial
dimensions have a net void each. From the above table, an electron
fits this requirement right away.
The next step would be to consider groups consisting of particles
missing one and two dimensions:
One Dimension Two Dimensions
0 1 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1 0 0
Now list all possible combinations of one and two dimensional
particles:
011 011 011 101 101 101 110 110 110
001 010 100 001 010 100 001 010 100
Page 7
Now list all possible combinations of one and two dimensional
particles:
011+ 011+ 011+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 110+ 110+ 110+
001+ 010+ 100+ 001+ 010+ 100+ 001+ 010+ 100+
011+ 011+ 011+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 110+ 110+ 110+
001 010 100 001 010 100 001 010 100
011 011 011 101 101 101 110 110 110
001+ 010+ 100+ 001+ 010+ 100+ 001+ 010+ 100+
011 011 011 101 101 101 110 110 110
001 010 100 001 010 100 001 010 100
Now select those pairs which can be attached. That is they have a
(+) and a () void in the dimension. Note that two onedimensional
or two twodimensional joining is matter/antimatter annihilation and
thus cannot exist.
011+ 011+ 011 011 101+ 101+ 101 101 110+ 110+ 110 110
001 010 001+ 010+ 001 100 001+ 100+ 010 100 010+ 100+
In all cases, there is a dangling void. Thus there can be no stable
joining between just one onedimensional void and one two
dimensional void.
One solution would be to add one more onedimensional void to
balance the dangling void, just like a chemical equation. All
possible additions are:
011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+
011 011 011 011 011 011 011 011 011 011 011 011
101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+
101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 101
110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+
110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110
Only the dangling void can attract the onedimensional void. This
reduces the combinations to:
011+ 011+ 011 011 101+ 101+ 101 101 110+ 110+ 110 110
001 010 001+ 010+ 001 100 001+ 100+ 010 100 010+ 100+
101+ 110+ 101 110 011+ 110+ 011 110 011+ 101+ 011 101
           
111+ 111+ 111 111 111+ 111+ 111 111 111+ 111+ 111 111
Note that by adding all the voids in each spatial dimension you get
either 111 or 111+. A particle whose sum is 111 is the antimatter
equivalent of 111+.
Since one of the basic assumptions was that there is no preferred
coordinate system, including time, then these twelve particles are
really the same.
Due to the right handed coordinate system chose, each of the six
particles is simply the same particle rotated one way or another.
Page 8
This three quark particle is stable because all three spatial voids
are neutralized ( 0 + with a 0 ), resulting in a sum of 111. Thus
it is natural to call this particle a neutron.
The only other solution would be to add one more twodimensional
void to balance the dangling void, just like a chemical equation.
All possible additions are:
001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+
001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001 001
010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+
010 010 010 010 010 010 010 010 010 010 010 010
100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+
100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Only the dangling void can attract the twodimensional void
(otherwise there would still be an unbalanced dimension). This
reduces the combinations to :
011+ 011+ 011 011 101+ 101+ 101 101 110+ 110+ 110 110
001 010 001+ 010+ 001 100 001+ 100+ 010 100 010+ 100+
010 001 010+ 001+ 100 001 100+ 001+ 100 010 100+ 010+
           
000 000 000+ 000+ 000 000 000+ 000+ 000 000 000+ 000+
Note that by adding all the voids in each spatial dimension you get
either 000 or 000+. A particle whose sum is 000 is the antimatter
equivalent of 000+. Since one of the basic assumptions was that
there is no preferred coordinate system, including, time then these
twelve particles are really the same.
Due to time, the six 000 are the same as the six 000+. Due to the
right handed coordinate system chosen, each of the six particles is
simply the same particle rotated one way or another.
This three quark particle is stable because all three spatial
dimension are cancelled (1+ with a 1), resulting in a sum of 000.
This is a particle with a charge of one. Thus it is natural to call
this particle a proton.
NEUTRONS: THE BINDING BUILDING BLOCKS
By looking at the geometric structure of the quarks that make up
a neutron, one can easily see that there are two negative attachment
points and two positive attachment points. This allows neutrons to
bind to themselves or to protons.
Protons only have two positive attachment points. Thus protons
cannot bind to themselves.
Neutron to Neutron Neutron to Proton
( Star ) ( Helium nucleus )
+  +  +  ++
   
+  +  ++  +
 
Page 9
For more than one proton to be in an atom's nucleus there must be
neutrons to bind them together. Geometry can be used to show why
the neutrons do not increase uniformly in the periodic table as well
as why there are isotopes of various stabilities.
Neutron stars can form but not proton stars because only neutrons
can bind to themselves.

If you have comments or other information relating to such topics as
this paper covers, please upload to KeelyNet or send to the Vangard
Sciences address as listed on the first page. Thank you for your
consideration, interest and support.
Jerry W. Decker.........Ron Barker...........Chuck Henderson
Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet

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FINIS
Page 10