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| File Name : RESONAN.ASC | Online Date : 10/15/94 |
| Contributed by : Frode Olsen | Dir Category : ENERGY |
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How to utilise resonance to increase energy
By
Frode G. Olsen, Steinvegen 2, 8550 Lundingen, Norway
A researcher in the free-energy field writing about Viktor Schauberger
once asked in an article; "Can energy grow?". I think yes, and this is an
attempt to explain what I mean.
First, lets look at some common mis-understandings. Conventional science
does allow power to grow, whilst maintaining an energy constant. E.g. if you
charge a flash capacitor from a battery at 1 Watt constantly for 1 second, you
have supplied 1 watt-second of energy. In the short time the flash occurs, say
1 mS, the power during that time would have to be 1000 times bigger, 1000
watts, to discharge the 1 Watt-Second of energy.
This is NOT WHAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT in the over unity devices that have
emerged over the last few years. Most of these devices have, or could have, a
quite simple explanation also acceptable to the 'mainstream' science.
Nikola Tesla once said: "Resonance can do a lot to amplify energy......".
What did he mean? It is commonly known among the conventional scientists that
a parallel circuit fed with a sinewave at its center frequency circulates a
reactive power between the coils' magnetic field and the capacitors' electric
field many times greater than the input energy. The ratio is called the
circuits 'Q'- factor, and can typically be 40 to 400 with off-the-shelf
components. This energy difference normally cannot be utilised because tapping
it reduces the 'Q'- factor, so you are back where you started.
I began thinking about another method after reading Thomas Henry Moray's
book "The Sea of Energy in which the Earth Floats" a number of times. The
statement that stuck in my mind was that the Radiant Energy device required a
MINIMUM load of about 25 Watts, or at 110 Volts, about 480 ohm's.
A parallel resonant tank circuit with the resistor in parallel would have
its Q value REDUCED if the resistance DECREASED (loading increased). The
conclusion is that the output circuit in the RE device could not be a parallel
tank with the load also in parallel. Then, only one other option is left; a
parallel circuit with the load resistor in SERIES with either the capacitor or
the inductor (coil).
The attentive reader would now ask : What of it? Tthere is no real,
active power produced in this circuit, YET. This is true. This circuit is
quite ordinary and with the resistor in series with the inductor, it is used
in tuned amplifiers to boost signal amplitude near the resonant frequency. If
we look carefully at the diagram of active (input) and reactive (stored) power
in this circuit, we see that there is a REAL power component along the REAL-
AXIS, and it is equal to the power needed to drive the load. Along the
IMAGINARY - AXIS we find a reactive power component Q times larger in
amplitude. This power is also said to be the circulating power within the
circuit. Fig 2 illustrates the relationship between input active power, and
circulating, imaginary power.
From Fig 2, what seems to be the only difference between real and
imaginary power, the imaginary being the larger one at Q larger than one?
There is a phase difference (angular difference) of 90 degrees only. So, the
original idea was this; What if one could ROTATE the diagram so that the
LARGER reactive power fell along the REAL - AXIS, and therefore became REAL
power? And HOW could this be accomplished?
A really interesting observation is made by studying the simple Fig 2;
the sinewave already in existence inside the tank circuit is the reference,
and determines which phase is real and which phase is imaginary. Then, the
simple answer to both questions is that the only thing one has to do is to
provide a 90 degree POSITIVE (early) phase shift in the input pulses.....
Fig 3 show that this results in a positive imaginary input power, and a
NEGATIVE REAL POWER Q TIMES BIGGER THAN THE INPUT.
The practical implementation is to place the input pulses 90 degrees
early compared with the signal present in the parallel circuit all the time.
This is most easily done by using a pulse frequency slightly higher than the
circuits resonant frequency. About 1 per cent higher frequency worked well in
my PSPICE simulation of this method.
What really happens? The very first pulse to hit the resonance circuit
starts to set up the circulating sine-wave. If the pulses all were at the
resonance frequency, the next pulse would be placed at the voltage peak of the
oscillations. this means that to transfer charge from the input source to the
circuit, the source has to provide the maximum voltage, and power. Now, the
frequency is increased slightly, resulting in that the pulses move earlier and
earlier in phase compared with the sine wave. The real beauty of the method is
that it is self regulating; the pulses will never reach or cross the optimum
zero-crossing (positive going sine wave) point. The effect causing this is the
more rapid charging of the capacitor because of the combined actions of the
pulse and the collapsing magnetic field in the coil. The positive going flank
of the sine therefore becomes steeper, the voltage rises faster which is
analogue to increased frequency. The resonance circuit is actually tracking
the pulses and is pulled to the higher frequency.
What we have now achieved is that the charging pulses all fall very near
the zero crossing of the sine wave were the circuits voltage (and the
capacitor voltage) is at its minimum. Then, when the pulses transfer charge to
the circuit, they can do so with a SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCED VOLTAGE compared with
placing the pulses at the voltage peak. Since the capacitor at the zero
crossing has zero voltage, the current is higher which indicates a capacitive
circuit (positive imaginary) circuit seen from the input. Now look at Fig 3,
the rotated diagram. This is in accordance with capacitive input because the
input now points up the positive imaginary axis.
Next observe what was the imaginary power in Fig 2. It has now rotated
through 90 degrees and FALLS ALONG THE NEGATIVE REAL POWER AXIS. What does
that mean? Negative power simply means A SOURCE. So, the resonance circuit fed
with a slightly higher pulse frequency than the resonance frequency will
become a source.
How do we conveniently tap this negative power from the circuit? An easy
way is to parallel the capacitor and coil directly and make the coil a
transformer primary. The load is placed at the secondary. It is important
that the secondary does not load too much so that it prevents the effect to
assert itself. The Q value we will remember is the difference between the
reactive and the active power, and to get as much power as possible from the
circuit we would want it as high as practically possible.
Then the secondary of the transformer would have to be of fewer windings
than the primary. Typically, a Q of 10 or more is required. The load
resistance transforms as the square-root of the winding ratio. The transformed
load resistance should therefore be 10 to 100 times the reactance of the
capacitor in use at the pulse frequency. From this statement it is obvious
that the power available increase proportionally with higher frequency because
the capacitors reactance falls with frequency. Likewise, the power available
increases proportionally with the capacitor value because the reactance
increases proportionally with frequency.
In an article on Tesla's experiment in 1931 with a Pierce Arrow
automobile with a power-converter and a long and slim electro motor installed
there is a part of the text that has some relevance. The author says: " it is
believed that the reactive power in circulating in the converter was
considerably higher than that used by the electromotor replacing the standard
70 HP internal combustion engine". According to the method described above we
can both name and quantitatively describe this number as the Q value of the
circuit.
It is worth noticing that if the pulses are placed exactly at the zero-
crossing and infinitely short, they will always be able to transfer charge to
the circuit. At no load and an ideal circuit (Q equals infinite), the voltage
and power level would continue to increase indefinitely. Even at modest values
of Q, the voltage would increase very much if the load tapping the charge out
of the circuit was removed or lessened. Therefore high power circuit of this
kind must have a negative feedback reducing input to a much lower value when a
certain voltage level is reached. This is to protect the capacitor which would
otherwise have its dielectric raptured. Alternatively, the circulating
currents could burn out the wiring. The last case seems to have been Lester
Hendershot's biggest problem. His 300W device kept failing because of wiring
burn outs.
The load should also preferably be regulated. It should only load the
circuit after a minimum voltage value was reached and maintained. This would
insure, on average at least, a high enough Q value at heavy loads.
Why spend of a battery or another prime mover at all to supply the input?
Initially one would have to because the sine must build from quite a few of
the first pulses. But, after that the output would be Q times higher than the
input in continuous power. The preferred solution would then be to feed back
from the output what is needed for self sustained operation. This would leave
you with Q-1 times the feedback power to spend. But, since Q is high, this
slight reduction would be of no practical consequence.
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This text was prepared by The Norwegian Free Energy Group
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