______________________________________________________________________________
| File Name : MAGFORCE.ASC | Online Date : 06/21/95 |
| Contributed by : John Peters | Dir Category : ENERGY |
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The following file correlates with claims that Tesla designed and tested a
levitating sphere. One hemisphere became hot, the other cold while
levitating. Keely also levitated an iron sphere using acoustic energy to
induce this 'non-rotating angular momentum', so you can see how important this
file is...........................thank you John for sharing it with KeelyNet!
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This file was a message on the FIDONET UFO Conference; material is certainly
of interest to users of this conference -- John W. Peters.
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* Forwarded from "INFO.PARANET"
* Originally by Larry Adams
* Originally to All
* Originally dated 14 Jun 1995, 14:02
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From: ladams@sensemedia.net (Larry Adams)
Date: 14 Jun 95 07:10:14 GMT
Organization: The SenseMedia Network, http://sensemedia.net/, in
o@sensemedia.net
Message-ID: <3rm20m$8hm@Sequoia.picosof.com>
Newsgroups: alt.paranet.ufo
The electric Biefeld-Brown effect has a magnetic counterpart.
by Larry Adams REVISED 13 JUN 1995
The following explains how magnetic resonance might propel an iron sphere in
the vertical z direction. No interaction with the earth's magnetic field is
involved; a force is developed internally that opposes the force of gravity.
Magnetic resonance in its various forms, NMR, EPR, and EFR, are all applied to
relatively small specimens and, with the exception of EFR, are rarely applied
to magnetic materials. EFR means Electron Ferromagnetic Resonance, and the
best intro to this subject is by Vonsovskii.
Curiously, there is no published data on EFR for large ferromagnetic
specimens. A literature search at a campus of the University of California
revealed nothing. F. Herlach has said that there is an 'open' literature and a
'closed' literature concerning magnetic research.
The basic assumption made here is that the principles are the same for
specimens small and large, but that there may be nonlinearities associated
with larger ferromagnetic bodies.
Magnetic resonance is similar, yet different, from mechanical gyroscopy. There
is a precession of the vectors of angular momentum and magnetic moment.
The negative change in the potential energy between the moment and the field
divided by the coordinate change along the direction of the field equals a
unidirectional force along the direction of the field.
The moment U precesses at an angle about the vertical. Changes in this angle
are due to pulsations of B.
This force does not exist in ordinary magnetism, because the precession
initially developed by the application of B quickly damps out.
Microwave radiation at the precession frequency must be administered at right
angles to the field direction of B to sustain the precession. The center of
the magnetic moment corresponds to the center of mass.
Note that changes in P.E. are more significant than P.E. alone. The following
is a non-calculus derivation of the force. The change in a quantity is
preceeded with a "d" meaning delta.
We have a solid iron sphere resting on the earth, with a magnetizing coil
wrapped around it. (A cylinder would work but it produces demagnetizing fields
that must be reckoned with in the calculation of the resonance frequency).
The xz coordinate system originates at the center of mass. The magnetizing
field, B, parallels the vertical diameter, in the +z direction. The resonance
frequency is applied perpendicular to B, along the x direction.
Before powering the magnetizing coil, the magnetic moment U of the sphere is
not aligned with the vertical diameter. When the coil is energized, U begins a
damped precession about the vertical.
If the alternating field along the x-direction is not applied, the precession
of U will damp out completely. The alternating field at the precession
(resonance) frequency maintains a uniform precession of U. Actually, the angle
U makes with the vertical, varies with the pulsing of B. B varies in and out
of resonance.
The precession vector Wp has the same direction as B; it lies along the
vertical diameter, in the +z direction.
The expression for magnetic potential energy is:
E(B,U) = -BU cos Theta
where Theta is the angle between B and U.
The above is true statically and dynamically.
U has some initial angle from the vertical. Resonance reduces this angle to
some final angle. Let P be the initial angle and Q be the final angle.
The change in P.E. using P and Q is:
dE = (-BU cosP) - (-BU cosQ)
= BU(cosQ - cosP)
z = rcos Theta
where r lies along U and is equal to the radius of the sphere.
z < = rcos(zero).
dz = rcosP - rcosQ
= r(cosP - cosQ)
Fz = -dE/dz = (-1) BU(cosQ - cosP)/r(cosP - cosQ)
= BU(cosP - cosQ)/r(cosP - cosQ)
= BU/r
Fz is the force along +z, in the same direction as B. In ordinary magnetism,
the force is perpendicular to B. At first glance, BU/r appears to be a static
quantity.
No; it was the result of assuming at least some minimal change in the angle
that U makes with the vertical. B varies slightly in and out of resonance,
just enough to vary the angle, and the change in the cosines cancel out,
leaving BU/r.
The magnitude of the precession (in angular units) is:
Wp = yB where y = |e/m| in mks units
For a field of 1 Tesla, Wp/2pi = 28Ghz
A modern EFR spectrometer uses a superconducting magnet and can easily reach
this field strength. Superconducting magnets can magnetize ferromagnetic
material when the material is used as shimming to fine-tune the field.
U = MV
where M is the room temp. magnetz. of iron, 1.7x10 [37;44;1m A/m [40;1mand V
is the volume of the sphere.
[ the preceding sentence is just as it was presented in the file, though I
think it is incorrect and should read thus;
where M is the room temperature,
magnetization of iron is 1.7x10 A/m (is this Amperes/meter?)
and V is the volume of the sphere. ]
The expression BU/r has a counterpart in the lower hemisphere of the sphere.
It is necessary to understand that U is related to the angular momentum of the
sphere, J. U and J are anti-parallel as vectors. U precesses about +z and J,
about -z.
A process identical to that which obtained Fz above, reduces to the following
for the lower hemisphere:
Fz = WpJ/r
The force is in the same direction as BU/r. The total force in the +z
direction is either: BU/r or WpJ/r.
As the angle between U and the vertical varies, the angle between J and the
vertical varies, *identically*. Since BU/r = WpJ/r it is clear that without
the precession of U (and J) there can be no force.
The calculation of J is straight-forward:
J = U/y
For a sphere 1 m [36;1m in volume, a quick analyis shows that the magnitude of
J is approx. 1 x 10^-5 kg-m [35;1m/s. But does angular momentum always involve
rotation of a physical body?
[ again, a probable transcription due to it being a word processing graphics
code, here is the most likely 'translation'
For a sphere 1 m in volume, a quick analyis shows that the magnitude of J
is approx. 1 x 10^-5 kg-m/s. But does angular momentum always involve
rotation of a physical body? ]
Not according to the experimental findings of Noble and Trouton or those of R.
Tomaschek. They "showed that an angular momentum DOES NOT NECESSARILY lead to
a rotation of the body involved."
The experiments involved freely suspended electrically charged capacitors,
which were determined to possess angular momentum YET DID NOT ROTATE.
Sources
Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, P. Schilpp, editor, 3rd ed.,
1988, pp522-523.
Vonsovskii, S, Ferromagnetic Resonance, 1966.
Feynman, R, Feynman Lectures on Physics, v2, 1964
Chikazumi, S, Physics of Magnetism, 1964
Soohoo, R, Microwave Magnetics, 1988
Herlach, F, Strong and Ultrastrong Magnetic Fields, 1985
Larry Adams
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